The last thing you wanna do at the AWA GMAT Essay is to get stuck in drafting the first paragraph of the essay. Don’t undervalue the Art of a Good Start. Failing at quickly drafting the first paragraph of the essay may indeed not only put at risk the AWA part of the GMAT, but also kill your morale for the rest of the test.
A good exercise that I recommend to everybody is to read all AWA sample topics that you can find on the official guide or on the GMAT website as downloadable pdf and identify the one you feel most unfamiliar with. The take a few hours to write the starting paragraph of each of them. You don’t need to complete the whole essay. Just write down the starter and then move on on the next one.
Here are the essay I decided to practice. In some cases, along with my version of the starting paragraph I also added a version that I found online.
The following appeared in the health section of a magazine on trends and lifestyles.
“People who use the artificial sweetener aspartame are better off consuming sugar, since aspartame can actually contribute to weight gain rather than weight loss. For example, high levels of aspartame have been shown to trigger a craving for food by depleting the brain of a chemical that registers satiety, or the sense of being full. Furthermore, studies suggest that sugars, if consumed after at least 45 minutes of continuous exercise, actually enhance the body’s ability to burn fat. Consequently, those who drink aspartame-sweetened juices after exercise will also lose this calorie-burning benefit. Thus it appears that people consuming aspartame rather than sugar are unlikely to achieve their dietary goals.”
The argument states that people willing to lose weight are better of sugar then the artificial sweetener aspartame, because aspartame can induce weight gain by depleting the brain of chemicals associated with the sensation of satiety and sugar helps the body to burn fat after physical exercise.
However, the author of the argument relies on weak evidence and unfounded assumptions; as a result, the argument is seriously flawed.
The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.
“In the first four years that Montoya has served as mayor of the city of San Perdito, the population has decreased and the unemployment rate has increased. Two businesses have closed for each new business that has opened. Under Varro, who served as mayor for four years before Montoya, the unemployment rate decreased and the population increased. Clearly, the residents of San Perdito would be best served if they voted Montoya out of office and reelected Varro.”
Discuss how well reasoned… etc.
The argument the local newspaper’s editorial recommends the citizens of San Perdito to reelect former mayor Varro and vote current mayor Montoya our of office. The recommendation is based on the fact that under Varro, the unemployment rased decreased and the population increased, while opposite effect have been obtained during the last mandate of Montoya.
The argument bases its conclusion on weak evidence and unfounded assumptions; therefore, the argument is unconvincing.
The following appeared as a part of an advertisement for Adams, who is seeking reelection as governor.
“Re-elect Adams, and you will be voting for proven leadership in improving the state’s economy. Over the past year alone, seventy percent of the state’s workers have had increases in their wages, five thousand new jobs have been created, and six corporations have located their headquarters here. Most of the respondents in a recent poll said they believed that the economy is likely to continue to improve if Adams is reelected. Adams’s opponent, Zebulon, would lead our state in the wrong direction, because Zebulon disagrees with many of Adams’s economic policies.”
Discuss how well reasoned… etc.
The advertisement argues that people shall re-elect Adams as governor instead of Zebulon, because Adams has been a proven leader in improving the state economy while Zebulon, who disagrees with many of Adams’s economic policies, would lead the state in the wrong direction.
The argument, however, is based on weak evidence and unfounded assumptions; as a result, it is seriously flawed and unconvincing.
The following appeared as part of an article in the education section of a Waymarsh City newspaper.
“Throughout the last two decades, those who earned graduate degrees found it very difficult to get jobs teaching their academic specialties at the college level. Those with graduate degrees from Waymarsh University had an especially hard time finding such jobs. But better times are coming in the next decade for all academic job seekers, including those from Waymarsh. Demographic trends indicate that an increasing number of people will be reaching college age over the next ten years; consequently, we can expect that the job market will improve dramatically for people seeking college-level teaching positions in their fields.”
The argument in the educational section of a Waymarsh City newspaper states that the job market will dramatically improved for people seeking college-level teaching positions in their fields because of positive demographic trends in the next ten years. The argument, however, relies on unfounded assumptions and fails to demonstrate a causal relationship between the evidence and the conclusion; therefore, it us unconvincing.
The following is an excerpt from a memo written by the head of a governmental department.
“Neither stronger ethics regulations nor stronger enforcement mechanisms are necessary to ensure ethical behavior by companies doing business with this department. We already have a code of ethics that companies doing business with this department are urged to abide by, and virtually all of these companies have agreed to follow it. We also know that the code is relevant to the current business environment because it was approved within the last year, and in direct response to specific violations committed by companies with which we were then working—not in abstract anticipation of potential violations, as so many such codes are.”
Discuss how well reasoned… etc.
The memo written by the head of governmental department argues that neither stronger ethic nor stronger enforcement mechanisms are necessary to ensure ethical behaviour by company doing business with his department. The first reason given is that a code of ethic and agreed to by the companies doing business is already in force. The second reason is that the code is relevant to the current business environment. Yet, the argument fails to prove that the existing code of ethic is effective in preventing future violations, thus the argument is unconvincing and seriously flawed.
The following appeared as part of an article in the travel section of a newspaper.
“Over the past decade, the restaurant industry in the country of Spiessa has experienced unprecedented growth. This surge can be expected to continue in the coming years, fueled by recent social changes: personal incomes are rising, more leisure time is available, single-person households are more common, and people have a greater interest in gourmet food, as evidenced by a proliferation of publications on the subject.”
The article appeared within the travel section of a newspaper argues that a surge in the restaurant industry of Spiessa will continue in the coming years following a positive trend fuelled by recent social changes.
Even though the mentioned social changes, comprising increasing personal income, availability of more leisure time, higher frequency of single-person households and great interest in gourmet food, appear as reasonable factors in promoting the growth of restaurant industry, the argument relies on assumption for which there is no clear evidence. Hence, the argument is unconvincing and has several flaws.
The following appeared as part of an editorial in an industry newsletter.
“While trucking companies that deliver goods pay only a portion of highway maintenance costs and no property tax on the highways they use, railways spend billions per year maintaining and upgrading their facilities. The government should lower the railroad companies’ property taxes, since sending goods by rail is clearly a more appropriate mode of ground transportation than highway shipping. For one thing, trains consume only a third of the fuel a truck would use to carry the same load, making them a more cost-effective and environmentally sound mode of transport. Furthermore, since rail lines already exist, increases in rail traffic would not require building new lines at the expense of taxpaying citizens.”
The author of the editorial of an industry newsletter endorses a lowering of taxes for railroad companies’ property taxes, claiming that taxes should be reduced because rail is a more appropriate ground transportation that highway shipping which, in turn, is unfairly competing with railroads because trucking companies do not pay enough maintenance and property tax on the highway the use.
Even though the argument seems appealing at a first sight, the conclusion of the argument relies on unfounded assumptions based on weak evidence. Hence, the argument is seriously flawed and unconvincing.
The following appeared in a memo from the customer service division to the manager of Mammon Savings and Loan.
“We believe that improved customer service is the best way for us to differentiate ourselves from competitors and attract new customers. We can offer our customers better service by reducing waiting time in teller lines from an average of six minutes to an average of three. By opening for business at 8:30 instead of 9:00, and by remaining open for an additional hour beyond our current closing time, we will be better able to accommodate the busy schedules of our customers. These changes will enhance our bank’s image as the most customer-friendly bank in town and give us the edge over our competition.”
Discuss how well reasoned… etc.
The customers service division of Mammon Savings and Load claims that changes in the customer service will enhance the bank’s image and, consequently, give the bank an edge over its competitors. The argument assumes that reduced waiting time in teller lines and extended opening hours will meet the busy schedule of the customers which, in turn, will rate the bank as the most customer-friendly bank in town.
The conclusion of the argument, however, relies on assumptions for which there is no clear evidence. Hence, the argument is weak and has several flaws.
The following appeared as part of an article in a magazine on lifestyles.
“Two years ago, City L was listed 14th in an annual survey that ranks cities according to the quality of life that can be enjoyed by those living in them. This information will enable people who are moving to the state in which City L is located to confidently identify one place, at least, where schools are good, housing is affordable, people are friendly, the environment is safe, and the arts flourish.”
The argument claims that City L, which ranked 14th in a recent survey on cities’ quality of life, can be confidently identified as a place where schools are good, people are friendly, the environment is safe and arts flourish. Even though the city ranking might considered an indicator of an overall good quality of life, the argument does not provide enough evidence to support its conclusion. Moreover, it relies on assumptions for which there is no clear evidence. Hence, the argument is unconvincing and has several flaws.
Sample found online: The author concludes that City L has good schools, affordable housing, friendly people, flourishing arts and a safe environment. To support this claim the author cites an annual survey that ranks cities according to quality of life. Two years ago City L was listed 14th in this survey. As it stands this argument is unconvincing.
The following appeared in an article in a college departmental newsletter
“Professor Taylor of Jones University is promoting a model of foreign language instruction in which students receive ten weeks of intensive training, then go abroad to live with families for ten weeks. The superiority of the model, Professor Taylor contends, is proved by the results of a study in which foreign language tests given to students at 25 other colleges show that first-year foreign language students at Jones speak more fluently after only ten to twenty weeks in the program than do nine out of ten foreign language majors elsewhere at the time of their graduation.”
The argument supports a method of language teaching promoted by Professor Taylor of Jones University that, through a combination of intensive training and family stay abroad, purportedly gives students using this method an advantage compared with other foreign language majors elsewhere. To support its conclusion, the argument mentions the result of a study based on a foreign language test focused on speaking skills.
The argument is flawed because it relies on unsupported assumptions to reach a conclusion that is not supported by the evidence.
Sample found online: This newsletter article claims that Professor Taylor’s foreign-language program at Jones University is a model of foreign language instruction. This conclusion is based on a study in which foreign language tests were given to students at 25 other universities. The study shows that first-year language students at Jones speak more fluently after just 10 to 20 weeks in the program than do 90 percent of foreign-language majors at other colleges at graduation. Despite these impressive statistics, I am unconvinced by this argument for two reasons.
The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper.
“Motorcycle X has been manufactured in the United States for over 70 years. Although one foreign company has copied the motorcycle and is selling it for less, the company has failed to attract motorcycle X customers—some say because its product lacks the exceptionally loud noise made by motorcycle X. But there must be some other explanation. After all, foreign cars tend to be quieter than similar American-made cars, but they sell at least as well. Also, television advertisements for motorcycle X highlight its durability and sleek lines, not its noisiness, and the ads typically have voice-overs or rock music rather than engine-roar on the sound track.”
The article claims that a foreign company that copied the motorcycled manufactured by Motorcycle X failed to attract X’s customers for reasons that go beyond the lack of the exceptionally loud noise made by motorcycle X. The argument bases its conclusion on parallelism with the car industry and on the nature of television advertisements of motorcycle X. However, to reach its conclusion the argument relies on weak evidence and unfounded assumptions. Hence, the argument is seriously flawed and unconvincing.
Sample found online: The author rejects the claim that the loud engine noise of American-made Motorcycle X appeals to the manufacturer’s customers and explains why they are not attracted to quieter, foreign-made imitations. The author’s rejection is based on two reasons. First, the author points out that foreign cars tend to be quieter than similar American-made cars, yet they sell just as well. Secondly, the author claims that ads for Motorcycle X do not emphasize its engine noise; instead, the ads highlight its durability and sleek lines, and employ voice-overs of rock music rather than engine roar. In my view, these reasons do not establish that the quieter engines of the foreign imitations fail to account for their lack of appeal.
The following appeared as part of an article in a trade publication.
“Stronger laws are needed to protect new kinds of home-security systems from being copied and sold by imitators. With such protection, manufacturers will naturally invest in the development of new home-security products and production technologies. Without stronger laws, therefore, manufacturers will cut back on investment. From this will follow a corresponding decline not only in product quality and marketability, but also in production efficiency, and thus ultimately a loss of manufacturing jobs in the industry.”
The argument supports the introduction of stronger laws to protect new kinds of home-security systems from being copied and sold by imitators. The first reason given in support of the conclusion is that is that such protection will foster investment in technology development, thus keeping a high product quality and marketability and, as a result, a solid base of manufacturing jobs in this industry. Despite the arguments seems sound at a first sight, a deeper analysis shows that it relies on weak evidence to support its assumptions. Hence, the argument is flawed and unconvincing.